Here are all the ~HOT~ SPM Tips 2012, ramalan, and forecast.
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How about “operational definition”?
Please remember… It consists of “what to do?” and “what is observed?” and sometimes “the direction”….
Example 1: State the operational definition for the hardness of alloy.
What to do: 1 kg weight is dropped on steel ball bearing attached to alloy block
What is observe: the diameter of dent formed is small
Direction: the alloy is harder
When 1 kg weight is dropped on steel ball bearing attached to bronze block, the diameter of dent formed is small shows that the bronze is harder.
Example 2: State the operational definition for the rusting of iron.
What to do: iron nail is coiled with copper strip placed in hot jelly containing phenolphthalein and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)
What is observe: dark blue spots are formed
Direction: the iron rust
When iron nail coiled with copper strip is placed in hot jelly containing phenolphthalein and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution, dark blue spots are formed shows that the iron rust.
Example 3: State the operational definition for the end point of titration between acid and alkali.
What to do: acid is added slowly into alkali solution mixed with indicator
What is observe: the colour of indicator changed
Direction: the mixture has neutralised
When hydrochloric acid is added slowly into sodium hydroxide solution mixed with phenolphthalein, the pink solution turns colourless shows that the mixture has neutralised
Example 4: State the operational definition for the reactivity of alkali metal when react with water.
What to do: alkali metal is placed on the surface of water
What is observe: the metal move very rapidly and randomly
Direction: the metal is more reactive
When sodium is placed on the surface of water, sodium moves very rapidly and randomly shows that sodium is more reactive metal.
Example 5: State the operational definition for the rate of reaction ( factor temperature-reaction of sodium thiosilphate and sulphuruc acid)
What to do: heat sodium thiosulphate to the temperature of 50 C and add sulphuric acid
What is observe: the time taken for the “X” mark to disappear is short
Direction: the rate of reaction is high
When sodium thiosulphate solution is heated to the temperature of 50 C and sulphuric acid solution is then added, the time taken for the “X” mark to disappear is short shows that the rate of reaction is high.
Hope you guys got the ideas how to answer operational definition correctly. All the best.
FINAL TIPS FOR CHEMISTRY SPM 2012
Chemistry Paper 3 Structured Question
Chap 13 : Heat of combustion of alcohol / Heat of neutralisation between strong acid and strong alkali & between strong acid and weak alkali – record thermometer readings from diagrams
Chap 12 : To determine the position of metals in Reactivity Series (reaction towards oxygen) – record observation
Chap 6 : To construct Electrochemical Series based on potential difference – record voltmeter readings
Chap 2 : Experiment to determine the melting point and freezing point – record thermometer readings
Chap 11 : Heat of combustion of alkene @ alcohol – draw graph / calculation / predict heat of combustion from graph
Chemistry Paper 3 Planning an Experiment Question [ESSAY]
Chap 12 : Experiment : Effect of other metals on the rusting of iron
Chap 8 : Preparation of soluble salt and insoluble salt / Confirmatory test for cation and anion
Chap 14 : Effectiveness of cleaning action of soap and detergent on greased cloth
Chap 13 : Heat of neutralisation between strong acid/strong alkali and weak acid/strong alkali / Heat of combustion of alcohols
Chap 5 : Compare electrical conductivity of ionic and covalent compound
FINAL TIPS FOR CHEMISTRY SPM 2012
Chemistry Paper 2 Section B and C [ESSAY]
Chap 10 : Rate of reaction-factor temperature / collision theory/ ionic equation
Chap 8 : Solubility of sat in water/ effect of heat on nitrate and carbonate salt/ confirmatory test for cation and anion/ Exp-preparation of soluble and insoluble salt
Chap 12 : Rusting of iron (mechanism of rusting) /effect of other metal on the rusting of iron/ Ways to control rusting/ sacrificial metal
Chap 13 : Heat of reaction – Heat of displacement / Heat of combustion / energy profile diagram
Chap 7 and 8 : Role of water to show alkaline property of ammonia gas / preparation of soluble salt and insoluble salt
Chap 3 : Empirical formula of MgO and CuO
Chap 4 : Reactivity of halogen when react with iron/ properties of period 3 (across the period from left to right)
Credit: Md Sihat Md Amin on Facebook page Guru Kimia SPM Malaysia